Motion Studies
The study of the body motions employed in performing a job to develop the most EFFICIENT work method
How to develop the MOST EFFICIENT Work Method
1. Eliminate Unnecessary Motions
2. Simplify Necessary Motions
3. Facilitate and Speed Up Effective Motions
4. Adopt Most Favorable Motion Sequence
Researchers' Work
Establish Motion Elements
Established via observations
  • movement principles
Therbligs (Motion Elements)
1. Search - Bad
2. Select - Bad
3. Grasp - One hand
4. Reach - empty handed
5. Move - with load
6. Hold - two hands
7. Release
8. Position
9. Pre-Position
10. Inspect
11. Assemble
12. Disassemble
13. Use
14. Unavoidable Delay
15. Avoidable Delay
16 Plan
17. Rest to Overcome Fatigue
Engineers' Work
AKA "Job Analysts' Work"
Principles of Motion Economy
The Use of Body
  • Use of both hands
  • Symmetric or Simultaneous arm motions
  • Continuous Motions
  • Lowest Classification (ex. fingers if you only need to use fingers)
  • Use momentum to your advantage
  • Feet/Pedals NOT efficient if you are STANDING
Arrangement of Conditions and Workplace
  • Definite Locations of tools to avoid search and select
  • Locate tools in normal working area
  • Use of gravity feed bins, drop delivery, automatic ejector
  • Located in order of use (aka sequence of motion)
  • Smooth rhythm
  • Proper illumination, ventilation and temperature
Design of Tools and Equipment
  • Parts held in position by fixtures
  • Tools/Materials should be pre-positioned
  • Get best possible mechanical advantage and strongest available muscle group
  • Two or more tools should be combined if possible. 
Analyze Motion
Optimize Work Method
Apply the Principles
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