11.1 Time Studies
A method for determining the STANDARD TIME required by an AVERAGE, FULLY-QUALIFIED, and WELL-TRAINED operator working at a NORMAL PACE to complete a task. 
  • Establish a fair day's work
  • Production Planning
  • Labor Planning
  • Comparison of Machine and Method Effectiveness
  • Health and Safety
Time Study History and Requirements
Founder: Frederick W. Taylor
  • As part of "Scientific Management"
  • Trained Time Study Person
  • Timer
  • Trained Worker
  • (Video Camera or Motion Pictures)
Procedure of a Time Study
1. Effectively communicate with management, supervisors, workers, union, etc...
Human Factors
2. Make sufficient analysis and records of the work methods/materials.
3. Analyze the job and break it down into its elements (Therbligs)
Ascertain that all elements being performed are necessary (motion study) 
  • This is why time studies rely on motion studies
4. Select Suitable Operator
5. Record elapsed elemental time values
Observe, recording, and measuring takes time. 
6. Observe an adequate number of cycles
7. Performance Rating of the Operator
The Westinghouse system
  • Skill
  • Effort
  • Conditioin
  • Consistency
8. Assigning appropriate allowance factor (10-35%)
  • Personal, Fatigue
9. Calculate normal time and standard time
1. Mean time = observed
2. Performance rating = (westinghouse factors added up + 1)
3. Normal Time = Mean Time*Performance Rating
4. Allowance Factor = assigned
5. Standard Time = Normal Time*(1+Allowance Factor)
Standard Time = MeanTime*(1+WestinghouseFactors(+))*(1+AllowanceFactor) = T*W*A
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