2+ more levels of gvt have formal authority over the same area and people.
All power resides in central government.
National govt is weak, most power in country's states
Election of Representatives
With more levels = more opportunities = more access in govt
Division of government requires an umpire to resolve disputes.
Federalism causes tension between the states and national government about policy. States are now responsible for most public policies dealing with social, famil, and moral issues. Federal govt can only influence states.
Are policy innovators, overflowing with reforms, new ideas, and new policies. Inspires national govt to follow if well liked.