Dual Federalism
Powers and policy assignments are distinct and powers of nat'l govt should be interpreted narrowly.
Cooperative federalism
Mingled responsibliities and blurred distinctions between levels of govt.
National govt began involving itself in education, a previously mainly state/local responsibility, and promoted partnership between the two.
Congress began creating an interstate highway system
Cooperative federalism today
-Shared costs ($ for airport, sewage, programs, etc)
-Federal guidelines ($ with strings attached)
-Shared administration
Shifting domestic policy (eg. child labor laws, education, health care) back to the states.
Republicans Today
Found turning to the federal govt and restricting state power more effective. Eg. No Child Left Behind Act - large expansion of the federal role in education
Fiscal Federalism
The pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system. National govt uses grants and funds to both aid and incluence states/locals.
Categorical Grants
Main source of federal aid to states. Can only be used for one of several hundred specific purposes of state/local spending. Come with strings attached.
Project and Formula Grants
Project - awarded on the basis of competitive applications
Formula - according to forumla (pop, income, rural pop, etc); states/locals do not apply
Block Grants
Given automatically to states/locals
"Something for everybody" (equality in politics): can have negative effects on public policy (eg to give extra help to poor children results in 95% of all districts receiving funds)
Requirements that direct states to comply with federal rules under threat of penalties or as a condition of a federal grant. Ex: medicaid. Put states in a difficult situation.
   Login to remove ads X
Feedback | How-To