Scientist describe behavior through case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observations.

Case Study

An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in hopes of revealing universal principles.

Benefits of Case Studies
can be very revealing, can suggest fruitful ideas for exploration
Setbacks of Case Studies
Can be misleading (an individual can be atypical), people may remember things that are discussed more in their life (bias)

A technique for asserting the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random, sample.

Have to be objectively worded to not influence the response of the participants
Random Sample

A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.

Representative Sample
Needed to retain the false consensus effect
False Consensus Effect
The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
All the cases in a group from which samples must be drawn from to study.
Naturalistic Observation

observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.

Doesn't explain behavior - only describes it.
Although it is a great start to a new experimentation, it is not enough evidence to prove something.
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