Charles Darwin
- theory of natural selection (1859)
- physical characteristics evolve through natural selection
- behavioral patterns also influence selection
- inborn knowledge and behavioral tendencies with survival values passed on
- evolutionary psychology: human beings are part of nature and can be understood through the methods of science
Roger Sperry
- established the lateralized function of the brain
- human spilt-brain research
- made important advances in our understanding of functional lateralization in the brain and how the cerebral hemispheres communicate with one another.
Michael Gazzaniga
- one of the leading researchers in cognitive neuroscience, the study of the neural basis of the mind
- worked under the guidance of Roger Sperry, with primary responsibility for initiating human spilt-brain research
- made important advances in our understanding of functional lateralization in the brain and how the cerebral hemispheres communicate with one another.
William James
Best known for pragmatism, functionalism and the James-Lange theory of emotion. He is often considered the father of psychology.
Sigmund Freud
Best known for his tendency to trace all psychological problems to sexual issues.
the first to theorize that we pass through different stages in childhood. Freud said we develop through four psychosexual stages (the sexual pleasure one gets from the world)
Ernest Hilgard
Known for his hidden-observer theory, and for his research on hypnosis, especially with regard to pain control.
Gustav Fechner
An experimental psychologist in the 1850s who wanted to prove the unit between mind and body. Discovered the constant mathematical relationship between force of stimuli and intensity of sensation.
Ernest Weber
A German physician who is considered one of the founders of experimental psychology. He spent his years studying the tactile senses, the two-point threshold and weight perception
David Hubel
Co-recipient with Torsten Weisel of the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine, for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system. These studies showed how the visual system constructs complex representations of visual information from simple stimulus features.
Torsten Weisel
A Swedish co-recipient with David H. Hubel of the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine, for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system.
Albert Bandura
formulated the social learning theory
suggested that personality is created by an interaction between the person (traits), the environment, and the person’s behavior. Bandura also believed that personality is affected by people’s sense of self-efficacy
John Garcia
known for his research in taste aversion learning
Ivan Pavlov
discovered classical conditioning.
Robert Rescorla
revised the Pavlonian model to take into account a more complex set of circumstances, known as the contingency model of classical conditioning.
coined the term operant conditioning, known for his research in this form of learning. He invented the Skinner box. He also asserted that learning occurs without thought
Edward Thorndike
one of the first people to research operant conditioning. He conducted experiments using a cat in a puzzle box. He used the term instrumental learning to describe his work.
Edward Tolman
studied latent learning
John B. Watson
conditioned a little boy to fear white rabbits by using aversive conditioning
Mary Ainsworth
researched the idea of attachment by placing human infants into novel situations. Ainsworth observed infants’ reactions when placed into a strange situation: their parents left them alone for a short period of time and then returned
Diana Baumrind
a clinical and developmental psychologist, Baumrind is known for her research on parenting styles and for her critique of deception in psychological research. Her parenting styles were based on two aspects of parenting that are found to be extremely important. The first was "parental responsiveness", which refers to the degree the parent responds to the child's needs. The second was "parental demandingness" which is the extent to which the parent expects more mature and responsible behavior from a child. Baumrind has also studied the effects of corporal punishment on children
Erik Erikson
a Neo-Freudian, a theorist who believed in the basics of Freud’s theory but adapted it to fit his own observations. Erikson developed his own stage theory of development and thought that our personality was profoundly influenced by our experiences with others, so he created the psychosocial stage theory. It consists of eight stages, each stage centering on a specific social conflict.
Carol Gilligan
theorized that Kohlberg’s assumption that boys and girls (and men and women) come to moral conclusions in the same way is incorrect. According to Gilligan’s research, boys have a more absolute view of what is moral while girls pay more attention to the situational factors.
Harry Harlow
in the 1950s, Harlow raised baby monkeys with two artificial wire frame figures made to resemble mother monkeys. He discovered that infant monkeys, when frightened, preferred the soft mother figure even over the figure that they fed from. Harlow’s studies demonstrated the importance of physical comfort in the formation of attachment with parents
Lawrence Kohlberg
studied the morality aspect of human development and wanted to describe how our ability to reason about ethical situations changed over our lives
Konrad Lorenz
an Austrian zoologist, animal psychologist, and ornithologist. He is considered one of the founders of modern Ethology. Lorenz studied instinctive behavior in animals, especially in graylag geese and jackdaws. Working with geese, he re-discovered the principle of imprinting in the behavior of nidifugous birds
Jean Piaget
when working with children he noticed that children of roughly the same age almost always gave similar answers to some of the questions on the intelligence test, even if the answers were wrong. He hypothesized that this is because they were all thinking in similar ways. This hypothesis led to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development (described how children viewed the world through schemata, cognitive rules we use to interpret the world).
Lev Vygotsky
a Soviet psychologist, the founder of cultural-historical psychology, and the leader of the Vygotsky Circle.
Herrmann Ebbinghaus
was determined to show that higher mental processes are not hidden from view, but rather, could be studied using experimentation
He is a German psychologist who pioneered in experimental methods for measuring learning and memory, demonstrating that memory is based on associations. His well-known "forgetting curve" relates forgetting to the passage of time.
Elizabeth Loftus
a professor of psychology and expert researcher on the malleability and reliability of repressed memories, is an instrumental figure in cognitive psychology
studied cognition and demonstrated the problems with eyewitness testimony and constructive memory.
Gary Wells
much of his work has been directed at eye witness testimony with an emphasis on how to improve the accuracy of such a testimony
Wolfgang Kohler
a German psychologist and phenomenologist who contributed to the creation of Gestalt psychology.
George A. Miller
provided two theoretical ideas that are fundamental to the information processing framework and cognitive psychology. The first concept is `chunking' and the capacity of short-term (working) memory. Miller's second great contribution was the concept of information processing, using a computer model of human learning.
Alfred Binet
studied testing and individual differences. Worked in developmental psychology, and created the first intelligence test
Francis Galton
known for his pioneering studies of human intelligence
Howard Gardner
claimed we have multiple intelligences versus just a single intelligence.
Charles Spearman
developed the idea of the G factor to account for imperfect correlations in IQ tests
Robert Sternberg
came up with the Triarchic theory of intelligence
Louis terman
revised Binet’s test to make it applicable to a wider range of children
David Wchsler
developed well-known intelligence scales
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